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Healthy Neighborhoods Data Methods, Limitations, and References

General information

Active Transportation

Methods

  • Data were obtained from U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates at American FactFinder.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.
  • Data included all workers 16 years and over that live in San Mateo County.

Limitations

  • Approximately 295,000 households are selected to participate in the annual American Community Survey, or less than 1 percent of all households in the U.S. 
  • Data were estimated from survey responses.  
  • Estimates have some chance of error.

References

Public Transit Access

Methods

  • Data were obtained from the San Mateo County Transit District.
  • High frequency bus stops were mapped with ½ and ¼ mile radii to represent walking distance to transit.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.

Limitations

  • Access was measured through walking distance to high-frequency bus stops defined as stops serving routes with a 15-minute headway; access may be measured in different ways.
  • Other public transit options are available in areas of San Mateo County, including the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) and Caltrain.

References

Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled

Methods

  • Data were obtained from the Caltrans Highway Performance Monitoring System’s 2001-2014 Public Road Data.
  • Data were cleaned and aggregated to determine the number of DVMT on state highways, local roads, and county roads.

Limitations

  • DVMT includes drivers who lived both in and out of San Mateo County and therefore were not specific to San Mateo County residents.​

References

Bike & Pedestrian Collisions

Methods

  • Data were obtained from UC Berkeley’s Transportation Injury Mapping System, which compiled data from California Highway Patrol’s Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System.
  • Collision data were compiled from multiple law enforcement agencies, including California Highway Patrol.
  • Collisions involving bicyclists and pedestrians that occurred from 2009 to 2013 were included in the analysis.
  • Collision data were analyzed using optimized hot spot analysis to determine where clusters of collisions occurred.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.

Limitations

  • Data may not include all collisions that occurred in San Mateo County from 2009 to 2013 due to incomplete traffic collision reports and collisions occurring on private property not being reported.

References

Sea Level Rise

Methods

  • Data were obtained from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission Vital Signs.
  • Vital Signs used data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, and the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.

Limitations

  • Percentages of populations that are vulnerable are based on American Community Survey data, which are estimates based on survey responses and not actual counts.
  • Expected sea level rise is based on projections and therefore may include some error; extreme weather events were not considered in the projections.

References

 

Food Stamps

Methods

  • Data were obtained from U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates at American FactFinder.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.
  • Data included all households.

Limitations

  • The percentage of households using CalFresh may not accurately reflect the percentage of households that are eligible for and in need of the program.
  • Approximately 295,000 households are selected to participate in the annual American Community Survey, or less than 1 percent of all households in the U.S.
  • Data were estimated from survey responses.
  • Estimates have some chance of error.

References

Sugary Beverage Consumption

Methods

  • Data were obtained from UCLA Center for Health Policy Research’s 2005, 2007, 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.
  • Data from 2005 and 2007 survey cycles were aggregated to create stable estimates (2011-2012 data were collected during one survey cycle).

Limitations

  • California Health Interview Survey data were estimates based on survey responses, and not actual counts.  
  • Estimates have some chance of error.​

References

  • Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(11):2477-2483.

Access to Parks

Methods

  • Data were obtained from U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates at American FactFinder.
  • Parks data were obtained from San Mateo County Open Data Portal.
  • Access to parks was analyzed by calculating the area of parks on the city level and calculating how many acres of park were available for every 1,000 city residents.
  • Data were mapped using ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Online.
  • Data included all persons.

Limitations

  • Approximately 295,000 households are selected to participate in the annual American Community Survey, or less than 1 percent of all households in the U.S.
  • Data were estimated from survey responses.
  • Estimates have some chance of error.

References

Crime

Methods

  • Data were compiled from the Criminal Justice Statistics Center (CJSC) Crimes and Clearances.
  • Crime rates were calculated to determine the number of crimes per 100,000 San Mateo County residents.

Limitations

  • CJSC data are based on the definition of crimes and the actual reporting of crimes from both individuals experiencing crimes and police stations.
  • Police departments throughout California are not always consistent with reporting crime and this can be due to department capacity, technical issues, mergers, and other unforeseeable events.

References

Small Businesses

Methods

  • Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2009-2013 County Business Patterns.
  • The County Business patterns (CBP) survey is conducted annually and includes the number of establishments, employment, first quarter payroll, and annual payroll.
  • Data sets were aggregated for the years 2009 to 2014 to provide trend analysis for San Mateo County businesses.

Limitations

  • This survey only includes establishments during the week of March 12 of that given survey year and does not include businesses that developed after the first quarter.

References

Commands